Over the next few weeks we will be serializing this fascinating article that recently appeared in the Bible Magazine (Fall 2015)- The result of a lifetime of study, Bro Don has put together this extensive document, that we hope will assist those who have struggled with this fundamental subject, helping all to come to a clear and complete understanding of the first chapter of Genesis.
A note from the author…..
“ Genesis, the bedrock of the scriptures, the foundation stone, is examined in detail and I aim to provide clear and concise explanations to many of the questions that are asked about this opening chapter of God’s Holy Word.”
Bro Don also has a dedicated ‘Milestones’ website…. http://milestonesuk.org.uk/ featuring a large collection of DVD’s, articles, books and more, many relating to the subject under consideration in this article.
‘Milestones’ is published annually in February, looking at the events of the past year in the light of Bible prophecy. Available from the author or CSSS agents worldwide.
Milestones Snippets are e-mailed normally 8-12 times a month, covering articles on current affairs of interest to students of Bible prophecy.
Milestones Books is a postal service of books by Bro Graham Pearce, political and religious books, also a range of Creation v Evolution books and DVDs at special prices!
Milestones Updates appear quarterly in the Bible Magazine.
Don also publishes regular ‘Snippets’ – updates of current news events that are related to Bible Prophecy Click here for more info…..Don is also the author of the ‘Milestones’ Magazine.
CREATION – A CLOSER LOOK AT GENESIS CH 1
Thy word IS true from the beginning. Psa. 119:160
Over 1,900 years ago, the Lord Jesus revealed one of the signs of our times by stating what will be his challenge to the nations when he calls upon them to accept to accept his position as Israel’s new King. This challenge follows on from the great destruction of Israel’s enemies on the mountains of Israel at the Battle of Armageddon. The Jews left in their land will have accepted their deliverer as their Messiah, and there unfolds a great work to bring the scattered Jews back to their homeland and to recognise their Messiah. In parallel will be the great work for the saints to bring the nations into submission to Christ’s rule. The message has been clearly set out.
And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people,
Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters. Rev 14:6,7
Although we generally see the Book of Revelation as a book of symbol, this is a command to the mortal population and so must be taken literally. What a marvellously apt challenge to today’s world! So we are not surprised when we find we live in an age when these sentiments are laughed out of court. A God?! A God who is going to bring punishments?! A God who made everything?! Yet it is the gospel, the good news because it is the truth, and those who oppose these things are going to experience God’s judgments, because of their refusal to accept the truth of these words. We saw what has happened to God’s people because they – in the main – refused to acknowledge the claims of His son. So it is not altogether surprising when the prophets and the Lord Jesus in this book, speak of the severity of God’s wrath which the nations will experience, until they are driven to acknowledge the Truth of these words. When they do, then they will experience the blessings that we have now, of being able to praise the One who not only brought this wonderful world into being but daily sustains it. They will enjoy the bounties that will flow when peoples work in harmony with nature and not exploiting it. Caring for creation, not destroying it.
So when you hear yet again, “Now billions of years ago … ” and your heart sinks at this folly, just think that sadly this is what scripture tells us to expect would be the false teaching of man in these latter-days. It is one more sign that we do live at the time of the end; the time when man’s control over the earth will be superseded by the Lord Jesus’ control. Many will be the blessings for the mortal population in the Kingdom age.
So what we want to do is just to remind ourselves of that time when God did indeed make the heaven, earth, sea and waters. This is not a scientific treatise, but a reminder of just what great sense the words of Genesis ch 1make and how rational and reasonable they are as befits this Divine revelation of what God did. Man was not there to see it; Adam was only there from the latter half of the 6th day. The trees, the birds, the animals, the hills and the valleys, were already there. Nor did Adam see Eve being fashioned; he had been anaesthetized by the great creating Elohim, entrusted with this work of forming a bride for Adam. So if we choose to disregard this God-given record of what He did, then we are left to human speculation and we know how shifty that is in this field.
The constant admission of the evolutionist is that we really have no idea. What was taught a few years ago becomes rapidly old hat, as new “discoveries” overturn previous thinking. The whole field of dating is being overturned as they discover things don’t slot together on their imagined timeline. The increasingly understanding of the complexity of life makes belief in evolution as the explanation for life, staggeringly faith-based. The Wall Street Journal 25-Dec-14 ran the headline Science Increasingly Makes the Case for God. The article written by Mr Metaxas showed the incredible odds stacked against evolution.
[In 1966] the astronomer Carl Sagan announced that there were two important criteria for a planet to support life: The right kind of star, and a planet the right distance from that star. Given the roughly octillion—1 followed by 27 zeros—planets in the universe, there should have been about septillion—1 followed by 24 zeros—planets capable of supporting life.
As our knowledge of the universe increased, it became clear that there were far more factors necessary for life than Sagan supposed. His two parameters grew to 10 and then 20 and then 50, and so the number of potentially life-supporting planets decreased accordingly. The number dropped to a few thousand planets and kept on plummeting.
Even SETI proponents acknowledged the problem. Peter Schenkel wrote in a 2006 piece for Skeptical Inquirer magazine: “In light of new findings and insights, it seems appropriate to put excessive euphoria to rest . . . . We should quietly admit that the early estimates . . . may no longer be tenable.”
As factors continued to be discovered, the number of possible planets hit zero, and kept going. In other words, the odds turned against any planet in the universe supporting life, including this one. Probability said that even we shouldn’t be here.
Today there are more than 200 known parameters necessary for a planet to support life—every single one of which must be perfectly met, or the whole thing falls apart. Without a massive planet like Jupiter nearby, whose gravity will draw away asteroids, a thousand times as many would hit Earth’s surface. The odds against life in the universe are simply astonishing.
Yet here we are, not only existing, but talking about existing. What can account for it? Can every one of those many parameters have been perfect by accident? At what point is it fair to admit that science suggests that we cannot be the result of random forces? Doesn’t assuming that an intelligence created these perfect conditions require far less faith than believing that a life-sustaining Earth just happened to beat the inconceivable odds to come into being?
There’s more. The fine-tuning necessary for life to exist on a planet is nothing compared with the fine-tuning required for the universe to exist at all. . . . . The odds against the universe existing are so heart-stoppingly astronomical that the notion that it all “just happened” defies common sense. It would be like tossing a coin and having it come up heads 10 quintillion times in a row. Really?
Fred Hoyle, the astronomer who coined the term “big bang,” said that his atheism was “greatly shaken” at these developments. He later wrote that “a common-sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a super-intellect has monkeyed with the physics, as well as with chemistry and biology . . . . The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question.”
Theoretical physicist Paul Davies has said that “the appearance of design is overwhelming” and Oxford professor Dr. John Lennox has said “the more we get to know about our universe, the more the hypothesis that there is a Creator . . . gains in credibility as the best explanation of why we are here.”
It is not the aim of this article to look at the problems of evolutionary dating of the earth’s age; that would be the basis of a separate article. I will however drop in occasional items against evolutionary thinking.
Genesis Chapter 1 – the foundation stone
The creation account is the very foundation stone of God’s Word. Break-up that foundation and the rest of the building that has been erected on it, crumbles to the dust. The incredible speed at which a believer’s faith in the Word of God can be destroyed is often amazing, if they reject the veracity of the early chapters of Genesis. Yet this shows how intertwined the whole Bible is with this chapter in particular and what flows on in the following chapters. Here God reveals Himself as a God of action. He commanded, it happened – as we see echoed in the miracles Jesus and the disciples performed. If God took billions of years, then the whole power of these statements of God speaking and the result happened is meaningless. If God did take billions of years, why did He not state this? Why does it not begin with something along these lines?
Long, long ago God caused a big burst of power which over a long period of time caused the earth and the sun and moon to be formed. Over long periods of time life gradually began to emerge. First simple life then bigger and better creatures and eventually man himself.
The Creation account is one of power, action, things happening in an ordered, structured way, and is the complete opposite to the sentiments of an explosive Big Bang and billions of years of gradual change. No amount of human sophistry can say that the Genesis account here can be reconciled with the evolutionary ideas, even if chance is removed from the equation and a God is inserted into the evolutionary theories. It makes no sense (from an evolutionary viewpoint) to have the sun, moon and stars being formed on the 4th day – whatever length we choose to make a day –after the plants of the “3rd day”.
The rest of scripture elegantly shows us that the thinking of man is in opposition to God. The beliefs of the true Israelite were totally different from those of the nations around. We see demonstrated time and time again what happened when the beliefs of the nations intruded into the beliefs of the Jews. Idolatry was and still is the false understanding by those who did not and still today do not, accept the revelation of Israel’s God. Evolution is today’s idolatrous, man-based thinking. So don’t be surprised when there are challenges to your minority view, thus has it ever been.
So let’s examine again this wonderful account given by the eyewitness to this stupendous work – God himself.
Why are there apparently two accounts of creation?
The account in chapter 1 (to ch 2:3) does appear to differ from the account given in ch 2 from verse 4 onwards. Yet do we have a problem with FOUR gospel accounts? No! We recognise that the gospels are presenting different aspects of the life of Jesus. Sometimes they appear to contradict, but patient study usually finds these are surface differences. Indeed it is a test of their veracity that the four gospel writers didn’t collude to avoid any “appearance” of variation in their stories.
So why should we be surprised at there being two apparent accounts in Genesis? Like the gospels it doesn’t take very deep study to appreciate that they are concerned with two different aspects. There is one marked difference between the two chapters. (For the purposes of this article, by chapter 1, I mean 1:1 to 2:3 – it is a shame the man-made chapter divisions were inserted too prematurely in this case). Ch 1 uses the name God – Elohim, Mighty Ones. Ch 2 uses LORD God, Yahweh Elohim, He who will be mighty ones. This latter is the title that God chooses to use to express His plan of salvation. This is not an incidental difference – it is fundamental to His revealed Word. Ch 2 is the beginning of the rest of the Bible message, God’s work of redemption. That work will eventually reach its climax when mortality will have ended and all who live will be immortal. The Kingdom Age is a stepping stone towards the ultimate Purpose of God. At the end of the Kingdom Age, when those who have lived and died during the Millennium will then have their time of judgement, then death will have been abolished for the human race, through the victory of the Son.
Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.
For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.
The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.
For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.
And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. 1Cor. 15:24-28
That is the grand climax – how it is achieved occupies the rest of God’s Word! Whereas ch 2 focusses on man and his relationship with God, ch 1 focuses on the preparation work required. An earth equipped with everything that is necessary so that mankind can have a world to live in, where they can exercise their freedom of choice. To trust – believe – in God, or not. So the two accounts are dealing with different, yet interrelated matters.
Genesis Ch 1 is a step by step chapter
The opening verse, like so many passages in scripture consists of opening statement and the rest of the section then proceeds to tell us how that statement was fulfilled. A type of newspaper headline, (though we will qualify this later). So here is a statement of intent.
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
Verse by verse we are told what God did until we come to Ch2:1
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
So we know that what is sandwiched between that opening and closing statement are the details of the forming of:
- The heavens
- The earth
- All the host of them (everything created in the heavens and earth).
They were finished, (same word as ended in 2:2). In the AV, all but three of the verses between the opening statement and the closing statement begin with and. In the Hebrew, every verse (including 2:1), begins with the Hebrew word waw which is equivalent to our English and. It is a normal Biblical method to convey a historical unfolding of events. So Genesis 1:1 is not an isolated statement but has to be taken as the opening to a series of events which will conclude with that opening statement reaching its completion.
It has unfolded a work which it states as occupying six days. But the section is not quite completed.
And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made. 2:2-3
So although the physical work of creation was completed in the six days, there was another element that God added to finally finish/end His work. That was to initiate a seventh day of rest. An important element in His work of creation, giving man a 7 day week as well as a pointer to that rest to come. We shall pursue this further when we come to consider the 7th day. At the end of the creation week we have all the elements necessary for God’s work of salvation to proceed, as our chart summarises.
Days or aeons – does it matter?
Yes it does! As we say, God’s wrath is soon to be poured out upon an atheistic world that refuses to accept that there is a God. So why should we give any credence to the ideas of man to explain away God the Creator? Many think that “science” has given us the answers to virtually everything we need to know about how life evolved, excepting, yes, there are some things we don’t know, but with the pace of new discoveries we are virtually there with our understanding of evolution. If this is our understanding, then we have sadly been brainwashed by the media who eager to promote godless ways. The honest among “scientists” admit that the opposite is the case. In Darwin’s day an amoeba seemed a simple blog of matter and not too difficult to evolve. What the intervening years has taught us is the stunning complexity of life. There is no such thing as simple life; even the humblest bacteria are an amazing powerhouse of unimaginable complexity and design. DNA turns out to be far, far, from a simple, 4 letter coding system. The complexity of the stars and planets and the precision of the heavens is awesome enabling space scientists to know precisely where Pluto would be over nine years later when the New Horizons space probe was launched in 2006!
It is a convenient phrase, “millions, billions years ago …” Its effect is to make us think it was such a long time ago we needn’t probe too deeply. Anything is possible given aeons of time! But no it is not possible! It is not possible to change one species into another without additional genetic coding information. True with that information, that gene pool we can breed big dogs right the way down to tiny dogs. But they will never turn into horses! There is no mechanism that will add information; it has to be there at the start.
So deeply are the foundations of evolution being undermined that in all seriousness some proponents are saying life must have come from space! It is too complex to arise through random chance events. We know indeed it did come from space, from God who put all the genetic information in place from the beginning. Far from evolving, creation, is devolving, breaking down, through the effect of the curse.
A six day creation is constant with the rest of scripture. Genesis tells us that the creation of Adam was during this time period covered by the phrase “in the beginning”. Under no alternative interpretation that accommodates long ages could the creation of Adam (or mankind for that matter) be linked to the creation of the earth and the sun, moon and stars. In every alternative viewpoint they are separated by alleged billions of years. Yet let’s see how consistent scripture is.
Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female,
And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? Mat. 19:4-5
So Adam and Eve were part of that work of the beginning, not aeons after it.
The very heart of God’s Law to Israel revolved around these words.
For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. Exo. 20:11
Clearly Adam and Eve were there during this seventh day, so it must be time as we know it, not millions or billions of years.
Come ye near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was, there am I: and now the Lord GOD, and his Spirit, hath sent me. Isa 48:16 ¶
God is saying He has spoken openly since the beginning. On evolutionary ideas there would have been no-one to speak to for the vast span of time. Let’s just divert to consider the huge difference in time scale between 6,000 years and the current estimate of the date of alleged Big Bang, 13,798,000,000 years ago.
Visualising evolutions timescale.
Imagine a 24 hour clock, that is, one that takes a whole day for the hour hand to make one rotation. We will use the time scale of 24 hours, or one day, to represent the alleged time from the big bang to today. The advantage of this scale is that the event of the Big Bang would have happened when the hands were at 00.00 and here we are with the hands back at 00.00 some 13,798,000,000 years later! So, on this scale, when were Homo sapiens – you and me – first supposed to appear? That event allegedly took place 200,000 years ago (y.a.) – on this time scale, a mere 1.3 seconds ago. As for 6,000 years ago it would be 0.04 seconds before midnight. The chart shows other alleged evolutionary land-marks on the same scale. [Chart to be done]
Here’s another way of looking at it. In the UK we think of extreme distances as being between Land’s End and John O’Groats –from the bottom to the top of the UK. At John O’Groats there is a signpost showing the distance to Land’s End – 874 miles or 1,406km. The arm of the signpost is about 0.6m/2ft long. If we made the length of that signpost represent 6,000 years, then the length of a signpost arm to represent when Homo Sapiens alledged put in an appearance would be require a signpost arm just over 7ft/2.2m long. However, the length of the signpost arm to represent when the Big Bang is supposed to have taken place would need to be 1,400km long, stretching all the way to Land’s End!
The role of faith
Whether we like it or not it takes faith to believe that God brought the world into being some 6,000 years ago. We have not witnessed that divine display of power which formed and shaped the earth and brought forth life. Yes it demands faith. BUT we see the evidence for a Master craftsman, a Divine planner, where-ever we turn in the world of nature. We also see proof of the existence of God though the outworking of His prophetic word. So it is not a blind faith, but a reasoned faith. Consider now the faith of the evolutionist – not that he would use that term because of its religious connotations, but it is the correct term to use. To believe in mind-numbing stretches of time with random changes, ending up with our ordered world, with its Laws of mathematics, physics, and chemistry is a real leap of faith, especially to an enquiring mind that discovers the paucity of the evidence that is trumpeted to support these ideas. As Duane Gish has been quoted as saying, “Isn’t it unbelievable what the unbeliever has to believe in order to be an unbeliever! It’s simply unbelievable!”
Once again we are warned from God’s Word that men would prefer to believe a lie rather than the Truth.
And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.
And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie:
That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 2 Thess 2:10-12
So when presented with the latest “evidence” for the long ages of the earth, remember that people do believe lies with whole-hearted conviction, but that does not make them true. When we have to choose between God’s Word and man’s word, we have good reason to trust the former and reject the latter.
The basic rock of evolutionary thinking is uniformitarianism. Wikipedia defines it like this:
Uniformitarianism is the scientific principle that the same natural laws and processes that operate in the universe now have always operated in the universe in the past and apply everywhere in the universe. It has included the gradualistic concept that “the present is the key to the past” and is functioning at the same rates. Uniformitarianism has been a key principle of geology and virtually all fields of science, but naturalism’s modern geologists, while accepting that geology has occurred across deep time, no longer hold to a strict gradualism.
If we accept the truth of the Bible, then we can see that this basic assumption that things haven’t changed and therefore “the present is the key to the past”, is incorrect. There have been dramatic changes in the form of a Noahic Flood of devastating, world-wide proportions. The climatic conditions were clearly different after the Flood; people’s life-spans where dramatically shortened.
How does this affect attempts to date the earth? Dating processes involve measuring tiny proportions of some element that decays over time. Knowing the present half-life, one can extrapolate back to a starting date. If however, because water is such a wonderful solvent, if the earth has been covered in water during the year-long Flood, it would leech out a proportion of what one is trying to measure and therefore make it appear older.
The other assumption is that there was nothing in the first place. That’s man’s assumption, which runs counter to what God has told us. Trees were created bearing fruit. Adam wasn’t a new-born baby! On that first sabbath Adam would have seen hills and valleys clothed with trees and fruits, birds laying eggs, animals, birds and fish fully grown and sea with salt in it. An apparently mature earth; certainly not new-born. That’s how God tells us He made the earth. It is our choice whether we reject or accept it. After all there are, I understand, many more evidences for a young earth than for an old earth.
With these background thoughts let’s spend some time looking at what Genesis tells us about each day.
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. v1
In the beginning God. In spite of some modern translations putting this differently, this is an accurate translation of the Hebrew. It indicates the commencement of the work. As we saw earlier this is like the headline summary of the chapter (although we shall qualify this a little when we come to verse 2). What initially is striking is that it makes no attempt to explain who God is. If we accept that is a record of truth revealed to Moses and recorded so Israel had a permanent record which could be handed on from generation to generation, then it is reasonable not to have an explanation as to who God is. Israel had experienced the workings of God in their lives and they understood His revealed Plan for this earth. They were His called-out people.
Does this put non-Jews at a disadvantage? Not really – we have the advantage of the whole Word of God, and if we read carefully its pages we shall be just as enlightened as Israel was, for His details run like a water-mark throughout its pages; all that we need to know about God is found within the pages of His Word.
Created. The Hebrew bārā means “to shape, to fashion, to create, always of divine activity.” Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius [BDBG]. Man has to have the raw materials provided before he can make something; God only has the ability to create both living and inanimate things from spirit power.
The heaven(s) and the earth is the Hebrew way of expressing everything within those two extremes. All life on the earth and the heavens and all the physical things contained in them; the totality of creation. (e.g. Psa. 121:2; 2 Kgs. 19:15).
The description of the new-formed earth
And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. v2
Here we have the first of the many and’s (waw). This is where the idea of a headline statement in v1 is helpful, yet needs tempering. Verse 1 is not an isolated statement. It is very much part of the unfolding story which beginning in v1 will run through to ch 2:3. So part of the work of this first day was to create the physical earth as is clear from v2. The work of creating the things in the heavens lies forward to day 4. But still lying within this 7-day envelope of “the beginning.” The description of the earth is very important.
- Without form – had no features, no hills or valleys
- Void – devoid of life
- Covered in water.
Six days later it was transformed.
- It had hills and valleys, clad with trees, shrubs and grasses
- It was teeming with life on land, in the sea, in the air
- It had sunlight and moonlight
- It had dry land and sea
That’s what the rest of the chapter is going to detail, this amazing transformation!
We are introduced to the spirit of God which moved upon the face of the waters. Movement to and fro seems to be the picture. Ready for action. We don’t have space here to look at the amazing building blocks that God used to construct all matter – the atoms and the electrical forces (the spirit-power of God) that holds them together. Another article maybe!
The amazing property of water
We are introduced to the first liquid – water. It has so many incredible properties that make it extra special, that only the mind of God could form such a unique material that can exist as a solid – ice, a liquid – water and a gas – water vapour in the normal range of temperatures found on earth. Today, 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water and 65% of our body is water. An article in the New Scientist 04-Apr-15 was headed Tapping the incredible weirdness of water. Its author claims that:
Water is weird. It has 72 anomalies – physical and chemical properties that are very different from other materials. [Viewed 27-Aug-15 at www.if.ufrgs.br/~barbosa/water-BigIdea.pdf]
I have taken these headings from an article http://nrich.maths.org/7273 [Viewed 27-Aug-15]
- It is the only natural substance found in all three physical states at the temperatures that naturally occur on Earth.
- Ice is less dense than water
- Water has a very high melting and boiling point compared to other similar molecules
- It is called the ‘universal solvent’ because it is capable of dissolving so many substances.
- Water has a high specific heat capacity
- Surface tension
- Capillary action
- But why?
All of these properties of water are critical for life as we know it but why does water have them? Does no other substance also do these things? What is it about water that makes it different? To understand the answers to these questions you have to study the molecular structure of water.
We are not going to do that, however!
Let there be light!
And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.v3-5
God spoke, results happened. This is the whole thrust of the book, one couldn’t get further away from evolutionary aeons of time. Like the miracles of Jesus, they happened in an instant. But where did the light come from, when we are told that the sun was not made until the 4th day? It is obvious that the author would see that this was an anomaly; if this was a man-made text this surely would have been ironed out long-ago. So it makes us ask – where did this light come from until the 4th day. Clearly it must be from God! And this teaches us an important lesson. Wonderful though the sun is and we do depend upon it, there is a greater light than the natural light. That is the light from God. God is light. 1 Jhn. 1:5. Now the natural light from the sun sustains life upon the earth; but that life is mortal. The light that comes from God through the pages of His Word also sustains life – spiritual life. The important difference is that it can lead to immortal life. No amount of sunlight will achieve this! So how simply and yet profoundly, God is teaching this most fundamental of lessons, by showing there is a greater light than that of the sun.
This too would have significance to Israel in the wilderness. They were about to enter a land where pagans worshipped the sun as did the Egyptians, whose country they had left. Yet what folly when there is a greater light than the sun!
This light divided the light from the darkenss. It implies a rotating earth, spinning on its axis. With space travel we can appreciate that half the globe is in light, this picture shows what a dividing line it is, a fact that we do not really appreciate from the ground. What is so wonderful is that woven into this literal account are so many spiritual lessons. From God’s perspective things are either light or they are dark, they either honour God, or dishonour him. Man has difficulty in seeing this contrast. Also we note that – as the Jews continue to do today in Israel – the day starts in the evening. The phrase evening and morning distinguish it as a 24 hour day. But note it began in the evening; dark was followed by light. Again we see a valuable lesson. We are born in darkness, in ignorance of God and His purpose and as we mature, we see the light and embrace it. So we see how fitting it was for God to do it this way round.
The other point to note is all the things that God names and compare them with what Adam names. There are so many things that man has no control over – these are the things that God names. There also are many things that man does have control over – these are the things that God left to Adam to name.
And the evening and the morning were the first day
What a dramatic start to the creation week. We have an earth, in its unformed shape, under water and the initial darkest has been dispersed by light shining on its waters, with the spirit of God brooding upon the face of the water and the earth rotating, all in preparation for the next steps.
The first day. The numbering of the days which is such a feature of this chapter is more complex than would appear from the AV and most translations. Unlike the other days, this first one is termed in the Hebrew, Day one, rather than Day first. The rest follow with ordinal numbers, with subtle difference in days 6 and 7 as shown in the box.
What is the significance of this? There had been no day before this one. God has always been but He is not bounded by time as the world that He created. The length of it was set by God by the speed of the rotation of the newly formed earth. Its length being set by the time for a particular spot on what, at this stage, was a featureless and water covered earth, to move back into darkness again having turned through a period of darkness, followed by light. This is a period of 24 hours. Interestingly it was defined not by the light from the sun but by the Light from God and the speed of rotation upon earth’s axis that He chose. The 24 hour day and the seven day week were appointed by God, not by “natural” laws.
Having defined the measure of the length of a day (the evening and the morning), this was indeed Day one. Those that followed were of the same length and thus became Day second, third, etc… Why the subtle emphasis on Day the sixth and Day the seventh? These were two very special days in God’s work of creation. The sixth day was the climax of the work, with the creation of man in the image and likeness of Elohim. And the 7th day was the first day of instruction and worship for Adam and Eve. A pointer to the coming day of rest (Heb. Ch 4) which will be the climax of God’s work with mortals; for beyond the time of the Kingdom, mortality will have gone for ever.
Let there be a firmament
And God said, Let there be a firmament [an expanse] in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.
And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day. 1:6-8
This expanse was to house the sun, moon and stars; its size is immense, beyond our comprehension, as are the numbers of the stars that inhabit this expanse. The Hebrew word used here, rāqîya, conveys expanse. There are several references in scripture to God stretching out the heavens. Some use the verb rāqa which is related to rāqîya, others use the word nātāh, stretch out, spread out, extend, incline, bend. [BDBG] These are but a few of these passages.
Which alone spreadeth [nātāh] out the heavens Job 9:8
I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth [nātāh] the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad [rāqa] the earth by myself; Isa. 44:24
I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out [nātāh] the heavens, and all their host have I commanded. Isa 45:12
Into this expanse God was going to fit the heavenly host. 1:14-17. This was an awesome act of creation which only God, who is the author of time, could achieve at speeds far faster than the speed of light. God tells us what He did, we humbly accept that Word.
Where was this water placed? There is an interesting reference in Psalm 148:3-4.
Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light.
Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens.
This passage is in harmony of what we are told in Genesis ch1, that there are waters beyond the stars. So it does not seem to be referring to a “cloud canopy” which provided water for the Flood, because the Psalmist spoke long after the time of Noah. (this doesn’t rule out that God did place water somewhere in space for this purpose, but that would be way below the stars, so it would not have been the waters referred to here. Also v8 says He hath also stablished them for ever and ever: he hath made a decree which shall not pass.)
Interestingly too at the end of Day second, there is no saying that it was good, as follows the other days. Was it that the “watery” works were not yet finished until the Day third with the separating of the water surrounding the earth into sea and land? This seems to be supported by the fact that the phase occurs twice concerning Day third. Once after the separation of land and sea and then again at the end of the Day.
Let the dry land appear
And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.
And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. 1:9-10
Again awe-inspiring power is being used. There are a couple of scriptures which shed light upon this action.
For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: 2 Pet. 3:5
This seems to convey the idea of the land masses being pushed upwards (standing, rising). By possibly volcanic type action, with pressure raising land masses at the same time dropping of the sea-beds, would not only give rise to dry land and seas, but the soft surface of the earth would be carved into valleys as the water sought its way to the sea-level.
The other passage is from the Psalms which speaks of a two way movement of the waters.
Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed for ever.
Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment: the waters stood above the mountains.
At thy rebuke they fled; at the voice of thy thunder they hasted away.
They go up by the mountains; they go down by the valleys unto the place which thou hast founded for them.
Thou hast set a bound that they may not pass over; that they turn not again to cover the earth. Psa. 104:5-9
At the end of this process God declared that it was good. v10. The stage had been set as it were, to be clothed. The earth was no longer without form, it was still void, empty, but it is now ready to be filled. This was the work of the rest of the day. The earth would be warm, wet and soft and ready to be transformed!
Filling the earth: a) vegetation
And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.
And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
And the evening and the morning were the third day 1:11-13
We note that what God created were mature-looking trees bearing fruit and herbs and grasses bearing seeds. At the end of this day the earth would look mature. What normally takes weeks, months, years, centuries (in the case of some trees) happened at God’s command. We think of the incident of Jesus turning water into wine. Nature, assisted by man, does that yearly, but it takes at least a year from the grape flower buds forming, opening, setting and the young grapes growing to maturity, to be harvested, crushed, fermented, bottled, matured to give wonderfully tasting wine! As God’s son, Jesus did that in an instant. We cannot limit God’s power – it is totally unlimited.
The importance of plants
Because man and the animals move, they need higher rates of energy to live. That energy is supplied ultimately from the sun. We are used to seeing solar panels today which turn sunlight to energy. Compared to plants they are not very efficient. What God has exquisitely designed are the plants which are very efficient at converting light into energy. By man and the animals eating plants, or eating (after the Flood), animals, birds or fish, which themselves have eaten plants, the animal kingdom makes use of the very efficient plant kingdom. Sometimes one haa to go down the food-chain several steps to get to the plant/marine algae primary feeder.
Genesis breaks down land plants into 3 groups. Grasses, herbs and fruit trees (not necessarily what we think of fruit trees, all trees bear fruit of some kind.) This is a much wider categorisation of the plant kingdom than the modern divisions which are divided into some 260,000 species. What was of interest was their usage in relation to man.
It is clear from 1:29-30 and 9:3 that until the Flood man and animals were vegetarian. Provided the right balance is eaten, a vegetarian diet can be enjoyed by creatures that are normally associated with meat eating, including man.
After its kind
This is one of evolution’s biggest stumbling blocks! How does a humble grass turn into a vine or an oak? Of course it can’t, because God set boundaries so that they only bring forth after their kind. What chaos there would be if this wasn’t the case and the row of carrots you had sown came up as beetroot! (Yes it does happen, it’s called mislabelling, but you should have spotted the seeds were so different!) What God has locked into the genic pool of each kind is an amazing ability to have variety, within the limits of that kind. So through breeding we have over 160 different species of Sweet Peas (genus Lathyrus). They are all Sweet Peas and will never become Marigolds. They have all been bred in the last 300 years.
So how do we define the Biblical kind, Heb. mîn? The Bible makes it clear that is a division according to ability to breed. So it is the pool of plants/animals which can successfully interbreed, what we today would term biological species.
There is a another term, biological species, which means a population of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring, but that cannot so breed with other biological species. Each biblical kind would therefore have originally been a distinct biological species. But creationists point out that the biblical ‘kind’ is often larger than one of today’s ‘species’. J. Sarfati The Genesis Account
At the end of Day third we had nearly everything prepared for the creation of man. Nearly, but not quite! We have an empty sea, but we have a verdant earth covered with vegetation. God beheld it and it was good.
Let there be lights
And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.
And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,
And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.
And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.1:14-19
Awesome power! God spoke, it happened. God made the sun, moon and stars on this 4th day. It they had been in existence for millions of years before the making of the earth and only appeared at this time, then the word rā’āh would have been used as in v 9 when the dry land appeared (rā’āh). The word is āsāh, which consistently in Genesis ch 1 means make.
Let us consider the timing. Why the Day fourth? Plant life needs light, but this can be provided from artificial sources. As long as the right spectrum they are happy and we can be sure the Divine light source was perfect for their needs. What was about to be created was sea life, bird life and animal life. Many of them would need more than just a source of light for their way of life, man especially. As we shall see, there is a multi-layered advantage in the system God instituted, marking out seasons, enabling navigation and migration to name but a few. So this was the ideal day, before the creation of those creatures which would lead mobile lives and have complex needs. So light is replaced by lights.
Let’s tease out the detail we have been given.
To divide day/night. As our earlier picture showed, the sun does divide up the day and the night very effectively. It helps to re-set our internal body clock. Even blind people’s body clocks are constantly being reset by light in ways we don’t understand.
Signs. The Hebrew is ’ôt, signposts, navigational aids. The sun provides an important compass for travellers. Sailors still learn to navigate by the stars, if their other navigational aids fail! The North Star and the Southern Cross provided navigational fixed points. Some birds navigate their way using the stars, the star pattern hard-wired into their brains – they don’t have to learn to navigate! Bees and many other creatures navigate by using polarised light.
Job was acquainted with the stars as mentioned in Job 38:31-33. They are also a sign that God has not forgotten His nation Israel. Jer. 31:35-36. The reflected light of the moon is a sign that the sun is still shining, though it can’t be seen.
Seasons. Due to the tilt of the earth, stars and planets are in different positions at different times of the year. Places like Stonehenge in the UK show us that from long ago man was able to check his position through the year and have an accurate, frequent check of the calendar, showing when to sow and to harvest.
Days and years. The passage of the sun’s shadow can give us the time during the day. The phases of the moon give us a longer check of where we are during the month. The summer and winter solstices provide half-yearly checks.
Lights in the firmament. The sun provides us with daylight. The moon gives a softer glow at night, its intensity varying with the phase of the moon. The stars fill in the expanse of the night sky with their very gentle illumination. Without them the sky would be black and very frightening and threatening. The starlight suffuses a gentle glow across the heavens.
The wonderful moon
The Moon (Latin: Luna) is Earth‘s only natural satellite. It is one of the largest natural satellites in the Solar System, and, among planetary satellites, the largest relative to the size of the planet it orbits. [There is a footnote saying this last point is valid if Pluto is now reckoned as a dwarf planet.] Wikipedia
Because of the peculiar surface of the moon, “the lunar soil of silicon dioxide glass, has a texture resembling snow” (Wikipedia), it acts as a reflector of light. The moon is unusual as we only see the one side of it because it is locked into synchronous rotation. It rotates on its own axis once in the month, so we only see the same face. Space travel has enabled us to photograph the other side of the moon. It is quite different, having only 1% dark seas compared with the 31% of what we can see. This affects the amount of light that it reflects. “Our” side is only about 11% reflective. If, beyond the Millennium, the centre of gravity – which is already slightly off-centre – where to be moved so the other side faced the earth, then night, although not as bright as day would be many times brighter than it is now.
Think of the spiritual lessons God was building in to His creation. Like the moon, we have to reflect in our lives the fact that there is a God and his Son the Lord Jesus is absent. Although we can’t see our Master, the reality of his life and work and promised return have to be reflected in the way we conduct ourselves. People do watch us. When they ask the reason why we are different (we are aren’t we?) then we can be a witness to the wonderful hidden light that shines in our lives.
Then consider the importance of the moon to life for man on the earth. As well as being our monthly clock, and our night-time illumination, the moon controls the tides. These help keep the riverbeds scoured and take the rubbish out to sea as well supplying nutrients to the coastal sea life. The strength of the moon’s gravitation pull depends on the size of the moon and its distance from the earth. Needless to say the combination of these two elements is “just right”. If it were a bit nearer or a bit bigger we would have much less land area available and fewer usable ports as the tides would come in further and go out more. Again if the moon were just a bit smaller or further away the tides would be ineffective.
The moon is moving away from the earth. That movement is small, some 4cm/1.5inches a year and is caused by the friction of the tides. Over 6,000 years – if the movement rate hasn’t changed – then the moon is some 230metres/750ft further away, an insignificant amount, but a problem to the evolutionists whose “prevailing hypothesis today is that the Earth–Moon system formed as a result of a giant impact, where a Mars-sized body (named Theia) collided with the newly formed proto-Earth, blasting material into orbit around it that accreted to form the Moon.” (Wikipedia). One problem is that the moon is only about 384,000km away – a receding distance travelled (at present rates) in under 1.7bn years. But more relevant there would have been huge tidal waves preventing any chance of life on earth until much more recent times. No! It makes sense that God set them in their orbits.
And God set them in the firmament of the heaven
Let’s look at one more example of the setting of these heavenly bodies by God. The moon, the earth and the sun are totally different in size. Yet! Because of their relative distances, the moon appears to an observer on the earth to be just exactly the same size as the sun on the occasions when we have a solar eclipse, caused by the moon passing between us and the sun. So the moon, some 400 x’s smaller than the sun, because it so much closer to the earth than the sun, it appears to be just the same size. A coincidence says the Wikipedia account of the solar eclipse rather dismissively. Others get a bit more excited! Regrettably I don’t know the source of this quote that I have used for many years.
“It is sheer happenstance that the moon, because of its size and orbit, neatly covers the sun during a total eclipse like a plug in a drain. For scientists it is nothing less than an heaven-sent luck”
To me this fit is like the signature by the master craftsman! There is absolutely no need for this to be the case; life would have existed without this apparent phenomenon, but what a mark of a Master Designer, a finishing touch so that we can appreciate His wonderful design. As they said to the Lord Jesus “He hath done all things well” Mar. 7:37
Scientists talk about the earth as the Goldilocks planet. Everything is set in its right place as we saw in the earlier quote with the heading: Science Increasingly Makes the Case for God. Sir Isaac Newton sums things up.
Atheism is so senseless. When I look at the Solar System, I see the Earth at the right distance from the Sun to receive the proper amounts of heat and light. This did not happen by chance.
He made the stars also
The scripture draws the equivalence between the stars of heaven and the grains of sand on the sea-shore. Today we know that this is so! As our slide shows, if we were able to count a billion stars a second, it would still take us over 31million years to complete the job of counting the estimated one trillion, trillion stars! What majestic power.
There brightness is just right; not too bright so could be seen during day nor overwhelming the moonlight at night, and keeping us awake at night. Their colours, predominantly white and yellow, form a good contrast against the black night sky, so the stars can be clearly seen.
The stage was now set for the events of Days fifth and sixth, to fill the earth with life.
Let the waters bring forth abundantly
And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.
And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.
And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.
And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.1:20-23
On this day God changed the oceans from being void, empty to be teeming with sea life. He also created the fowl the birds that flew in the sky. At what stage the insects where made is not clear, but could be covered by the moving creature that hath life.
In contrast to evolutionary ideas which has sea creature originating from land creatures, God made the sea creatures first. Again, like the plants, we see and immense range of size, shape and colour in the marine kingdom and bird kingdom. Many marine creatures have only been discovered in recent time due to the ingenuity of man, and it is thought only the surface has been scratched with what remains to be discovered. As the twenty-four elders sing,
Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created. Rev. 4:11
So many things of God’s creation are hidden from our eyes, yet are seen by God and the angels.
Amongst the sea creatures would be the many creatures that are now extinct with their details consigned to the fossil record. Again we note the emphasis which has stood the test of time, that they only bring forth after their kind, an important mechanism so that there is not chaos and confusion.
Fowl that may fly above the earth
God’s classification is flying creatures. The Hebrew ‘ôph, covers all types birds, bats and pterosaurs (the now extinct flying lizards). Again this is in contrast to evolutionary ideas that birds evolved from land creatures. Flying creatures have such unique characteristics that baffle any other explanation other than a creator-God as set out in this chapter.
Where do these creatures fly? We are told: above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. The Hebrew conveys the idea of the face, or surface of the expanse. To an observer on earth looking up they do fly in the surface of the expanse in the sense of being in the nearest part of the expanse which stretches all the way to deep space. They are clearly below where the stars are, which are set in the expanse.
At the end of this Day fifth, God saw that it was good, as the seas teemed with life and the air peopled by birds, with trees and shrubs and grass to feed, shelter and nest in.
Let the earth bring forth the living creature
And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.
And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. 1:24-25
It is now the turn of the land creatures to be made. Again God’s classification is in relation to man.
- Cattle: ox, sheep, cows etc. of use to man
- Creeping thing: reptiles, amphibians but not insects (invertebrates don’t breathe through nostrils)
- Beast of the earth: Other animals including dinosaurs which weren’t used by man.
Obviously the invertebrates were created but are not listed. Doubtless the water ones were on Day fifth and land ones Day sixth.
Again the emphasis on reproducing after their kind. The DNA make allows only fertile offspring from created kinds. WE have a huge range of dogs, thanks to the wonderful genetic pool, so wolves and foxes and dogs come from one kind. A wolf and a (large) poodle have been successfully mated! They were not created out of nothing; God formed them “out of the earth” as is the sense of the Hebrew – let the earth bring forth. God saw that it was good. So as well as the sea full of live, the land was too. Not new-born, but mature animals able to reproduce and increase upon the earth. We are now ready for the pinnacle of God’s creation week.
Let us make man in our image, after our likeness
And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.
And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.1:26-28
Man is unique. He is upright, has the biggest brain in relation to body weight, can praise and worship, can rationalise, has moral feelings and being in the image and likeness of the Elohim rep resented the chief of God’s creation. All the rest was for the background and environment for man to grow and develop. To show his faith in God – or not. Many billions have lived and died and out of these a comparatively small number have striven to bend their wills to doing God’s Will and to bring Him honour and glory. What a merciful God the pages of His Word reveal. What a glorious destiny awaits for those accounted worth to attain to the Age of the Kingdom and the Ages beyond.
So what is meant by image and likeness? In our image is one word in Hebrew. The image part of the word from tselem. Image, likeness, resemblance [BDBG] it is a copy of the original. When Nebuchadnezzar had his dream Daniel spoke to him of the image that he had seen in his dream; it had the resemblance to a man. In our likeness. Again a compound word in the Hebrew, from dmûţ. Likeness, similitude [BDBG], capacity [Jn Thomas]. Very closely related words which are used in Gen. 5:1,2
In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him; …
And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth: Gen. 5:1,3
Seth took after his father’s appearance and mental capacities, so man was in the image, shape, and likeness, mental capacity as the Elohim. Male and female made he them. We know from the Lord Jesus that God was His Father. As Jesus explained to Philip, “he that hath seen me hath seen the Father”. He has created the angels after the same image. The Father’s ultimate purpose is revealed at the end of the Bible.
Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. Rev. 21:3
And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. 1 Cor. 15:28
The details of the creation of Adam uniquely by moulding Adam from the dust of the earth and the subsequent creation of Eve from the side of Adam lie outside the scope of this article.
Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it
They were commanded to have children so that the world would be filled. The AV use of the word replenish needs noting as a word that has changed its meaning. It means fill up rather than, as today, fill again. Adam was the firstborn of God’s creation; their task was to fill the earth with children. They were to bring it into subjection and have dominion over it. God gives a broad sweep of what man is to subdue covering all creation, except for man himself. Unfortunately man has sought to subdue his fellow man, bringing much misery and death into the world. Things will be rectified under the wise rule of Christ. Dominion was not t intended to be exploitive, but beneficial. Man was to use his skills and wisdom for the benefit of nature.
The chapter ends with the detailing of food that God had provided for all creation in abundance and vegetarian in nature.
Having completed what we could term the active part of creation God declared that it was very good. And so this special day, described as a Day the sixth came to its close and the section ends with these words:
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 2:1
The work was complete and yet it wasn’t quite finished.
And on the seventh day God ended his work
And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.2:2-3
It needed this a Day the seventh for the work to be finished, completed. God intended man to have a seven day week. He had provided the tools on Day fourth for man to have an ordered life, and later to bring their offerings at the appointed times. The Sabbath day was intended to be one that man used to meditate upon the things of God. For Adam and Eve that first Sabbath would be a period of instruction and enlightenment by the angelic representative of Yahweh Elohim, who could have been Michael, one of the chief of the angels. Dan. 10:13 God intention was that man worked for 6 days and how pleasant that work of tending and guarding the garden (2:15) would ha been before the Fall, but the 7th was intended to be given in God’s service.
If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the LORD, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: Isa. 58:13
Then would flow God’s blessings.
Now God is the author of all natural laws. It is one of those laws of mathematics which illustrate why God chose 7 days instead of 6 or 8. If one takes 7 objects all the same size – they can be coins or plates or whatever. Put one in the middle and place the other six around it. You will find that they just fit togther, each touching its neighbour on either side and all touching the central one and forming another circle. That’s why the number 7 is associated with completeness, a circle has no beginning nor ending.
How privileged we are to understand these majestic things our God did at the beginning. We can have confidence in His Word.
There are many aspects we have not covered; perhaps these can form later articles, where we examine the folly and the flaws in the evolutionary teaching which is almost universal today. There are many excellent websites that uphold the Genesis account of creation and refute evolution. (creation.com; This article is based upon talks given over many years, but I have found useful a new book entitled The Genesis Account by Jonathan Sarfati, published 2015. As always one reads with discernment where speaks of the Trinity and Jesus the Creator.